With the continuous development of national economy and social service, the transportation of Harbin has been developing quickly, forming the crisscross water, road and air three-dimensional transportation network. Harbin has become the biggest transportation hub in the north of Northeast China. By the end of 2008, the total cargo transportation volume by various means of transportation reached 114.889 million tons, up 6.8 percent over the previous year, and the total passenger transportation volume was 103.732 million person-times, up 8.9 percent over the previous year.
Harbin Railway Bureau is one of the 15 railway bureaus all over the country, from Gulian at the north, to Lanling at the south, to Suifenhe at the east, and to Manzhouli at the west, connecting Russia outwards and Shenyang Railway Bureau inwards. 36 main and branch lines cross the whole area of Heilongjiang Province and part of Inner Mongolia, constituting an important passageway on Eurasia Land Bridge. In 2008, the cargo transportation volume by railway reached 14.56 million tons, up 4.9 percent over the previous year, and the passenger transportation volume was 36.27 million person-times, up 9.4 percent over the previous year.
Since the Chinese economic reform and opening, the highway transportation of Harbin has developed rapidly, and a number of important projects has been constructed, such as Songhuajiang Highway Bridge, Harbin Section of 2 grade special purpose highway from Beijing to Harbin, special purpose highway from Harbin to Acheng, 2 grade special purpose highway from Harbin to Yabuli, super highway to airport, express way of second ring and so on. Road transportation has developed into a main line transportation network with super highway, special purpose highway, and primary road as the main transportation lines. In 2008, the cargo transportation volume by road reached 96.65 million tons, up 7.3 percent over the previous year, and the passenger transportation volume by road was 64.97 million person-times, up 8.6 percent over the previous year.
Civil aviation of Harbin started from 1950. At the end of 1979, Harbin Taiping International Airport was established, and it has become the largest international airport in the north of Northeast China. At the end of 2005, Taiping International Airport has opened 46 domestic and international air lines, reaching 36 cities. In 2008, the volume of passengers entering and exiting the airport reached 4,985,000 person-times, up 12.4 percent over the previous year, and the cargo and mail handling volume by air transportation was 59,000 tons, up 11.6 percent over the previous year.
Songhua River is a natural golden watercourse of Harbin. The water transportation line spreads up to Nen River, down to Heilong River and Wusuli River, and connects some ports of Russian Far East. Through the river and sea combined water transportation, ships can directly arrive in such areas as Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia. In 2008, the cargo transportation volume by water reached 3,660,000 tons, up 2.5 percent over the previous year.
Aviation service of Harbin started from 1950. Before 1979, there were only 5 lines in the whole province, with only 15 flights and over 70,000 person-time annual passenger handling capacity. At the end of 1979, Yanjiagang Airport (the current Taiping International Airport) was built, and large passenger airliners can take off and land day and night, bringing the air transportation into the new stage with rapid development. In 1993, the passenger handling capacity in Taiping International Airport was over 1 million person-times. By the end of 2005, entry and exist passengers had reached 3 million person-times. By the end of 2005, the Airport had opened 46 international and domestic lines, connecting 36 cities. In the whole year, the number of flights taking off and landing in the Airport totaled 30,834, up 16.2 percent over the previous year; the number of entry and exist passengers reached over 3.22 million person-times, up 18.2 percent over the previous year; the transportation volume of various goods reached 61,000 tons, up 16.4 percent over the previous year. After extension, the Taiping International Airport has become one of the large highly modernized airports in China, as well as the largest international airport in the north of Northeastern China. In 2008, the number of entry and exist passengers of the airport reached 4.985 million person-times, up 12.4%, and the cargo and mail handling capacity by air transportation was 59,000 tons, up 11.6%.
Post and Telecommunications
Harbin Post Bureau is an important mail collection and distribution center and communication hub in Northeastern China. It may handle local and domestic post and telecommunication, as well as international letters, packages and Express Mail Service going to over 200 countries and districts all over the world. The post and telecommunication network with Harbin as the center, connecting the whole country, and reaching every place of the world has been formed. The telecommunication in Harbin has been continuously developing during the reform. Through the important construction in the period of the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth “five-year” plan, our city has formed a dimensional, high-efficient communication pattern. Harbin Communication Branch is a large-scale key enterprise affiliated to the reorganized Heilongjiang Communication Company of China United Network Communications Limited. Its network covers an area of 53100 km, including 8 districts and 11 counties (cities). In 2008, the volume of postal and telecommunication services totaled 18.5 billion Yuan, up 39.6 percent over the previous year. Among them, postal services were 0.78 billion Yuan, up 13%; telecommunication services were 17.72 billion Yuan, up 41.2%. At the end of the year, the total capacity of office exchanges reached 12.404 million gates, up 2.3 times. The number of fixed telephone subscribers reached 2.485 million, up 5.4%. Among them, the number of city telephone subscribers was 1.891 million, up 12.2%; the number of mobile telephone subscribers was 7.27 million, up 58%. The number of Internet subscribers reached 1.174 million, up 6.8 %. The number of wideband subscribers was 0.828 million, up 0.8%.